Pervasive Developmental Disorder
Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) is the common name for a group of mental disorders, but sometimes it’s considered as an atypical autism or autism spectrum disorders. This group include five diseases: a well-known autism, Rett syndrome, child disintegrative disorder, Asperger syndrome and widespread general development disorder.
The prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders in different countries varies. For example, in Canada, the frequency distribution of pervasive disorders is 60-70 cases per 10,000 population, 10 cases occurring in children. In the UK the figure is 90 cases per 10,000 population.
What is Pervasive Developmental Disorder?
The term “pervasive (or general) developmental disorder” is widely used in the official nomenclature, but its exact meaning is not defined yet. It should be considered as a generic term for all diseases considered in this section. The general developmental disorder without further specification (ORS-NOS) is just a descriptive term used in children with atypical autism.
Pervasive developmental disorder in kids is manifested in early childhood and characterized by delayed and impaired social interaction skills, cognitive perception and communication.
The nerve chain connecting the hearing aid with the brain, are composed of specific neurons (motor and sensory), known as “mirror neurons”. These neurons play an important role in the formation of social cognition – a set of processes that allow us to attribute intentions and thought to other people, and even to understand the emotional state of nother person.
Pervasive Developmental Disorder Symptoms
So, first of all, pervasive developmental disorder is a violation of social connections (aloofness, inappropriate to the situation affective manifestations), the inability to establish friendships, strange manners, pretentious speech, unusual gestures. Children with these disorders are confused in their thinking and usually have problems in understanding the world around them.
Sometimes pervasive developmental disorders is accompanied with oppositional defiant behavior, chronic organic syndrome, hyperactivity syndrome with impaired attention and mental retardation. Preference is commonly given to the underlying disease and concomitant diagnosis of conduct disorder is determined depending on the severity and duration of oppositional defiant behavior.
People with PDD often feel anxiety disorders, which usually caused by painful condition. Panic disorder is not typical for persons under 18 years of age.
Types of Pervasive Developmental Disorder
So, let’s consider all the types of disorders, which are part of a group of PDD symptoms. They differ in such factors, as social interactions and the rates of communicability, and limited, stereotyped, repetitive set of interests and activities. These qualitative deviations are a common feature of the individual activity in all situations. Experts use additional code to identify the data-related disorders or mental retardation disease.
Type of pervasive developmental disorders, which is determined by the presence of:
a) developmental anomalies and delays, which are manifested in the child under the age of three years
b) psychopathological changes in all three areas: the equivalent of social interactions, communication and behavioral functions, which are limited, stereotyped and monotonous . These specific diagnostic features are usually complemented by other non-specific problems such as phobias, sleep disorders, eating disorders, tantrums and aggression directed at themselves.
This type of pervasive developmental disorder differs from childhood autism by age, when disorder begins, or absence of a triad of pathological disorders, necessary for the diagnosis of childhood autism. This subheading should be used only if the anomalies and developmental delay evident in a child older than three years and the violation of one or two of the three areas of psychopathology triad is not openly expressed: social interaction, communication and behavior, characterized by limited, stereotyped and monotonous
Atypical autism most often develops in individuals with profound developmental delay, and in those people who have severe, specific developmental disorder of receptive language.
Specific conditions found so far only in girls, in which apparently normal early development is complicated by partial or complete loss of speech, locomotor skills and the skills to use both hands with the slowdown in the head growth. Violations occur between ages from 7 to 24 months of life. It’s characterized by loss of voluntary movements with hands, stereotypic circular hand movements and increased respiration. Social and play development is stopped, but the interest in the conversation tends to be preserved. By 4 years starts the development of trunk ataxia and apraxia, often accompanied by choreoathetoid movements. Almost invariably kids with Rett Syndrome have severe mental retardation.
Other childhood disintegrative disorder
Type of general developmental disorders, characterized by the presence of completely normal period of development before showing signs of illness, followed by a marked loss of acquired skills relating to various areas of development. The loss occurs within a few months after the development of the disorder. It is usually accompanied by a marked loss of interest in the environment, stereotyped, monotonous motor behavior and characteristic of autism disorders in social interactions and communication functions. In some cases it may be shown a causal connection of this disorder with encephalopathy, but the diagnosis must be based on the features of behavior.
Hyperactivity disorder, combined with mental retardation and stereotyped movements
Poorly marked pervasive developmental disorder with uncertain nosology. This category is for groups of children with severe mental retardation (IQ below 50), exhibiting hyperactivity, impaired attention, as well as stereotyped behavior. In these children stimulant medications may not cause a positive response (as in individuals with normal IQ), but rather a severe dysphoric reaction (sometimes with psychomotor retardation).
In teen age hyperactivity tends to change to a reduced activity (which is atypical for hyperactive children with normal intelligence). This syndrome is often associated with different lags in the development with a general or specific nature.
Pervasive developmental disorder with uncertain nosology, characterized by the same qualitative abnormalities of social interactions, which are characteristic for autism, coupled with limited, stereotyped, monotonous interests and activities. Unlike autism it has no standard for autism break or delay of speech development and learning. This disorder is often associated with marked clumsiness. Pronounced tendency to the preservation of the above changes in adolescence and adulthood. In the early period of maturity from time to time there are psychotic episodes.
So, pervasive developmental disorder is not a single disease but a complex of mental disorders with have common or similar symptoms.